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综合英语应用词典
发表时间:2021-05-10     阅读次数:     字体:【

A

assortment [n.] (usually singular) a collection of different things or of different types of the same thing 多种多样

e.g. In conclusion, cultural globalization, or worldwide McDonaldization, destroys diversity and displaces the opportunity to sustain decent human life through an assortment of many different cultures.

总之,文化全球化,或者全球麦当劳化,摧毁了多样性,排除了通过不同文化维系有尊严的人类生活的可能。"

Abrasive [a.] rough to the ear, harsh (声音)刺耳的,难听的

e.g. Aflac has ditched comedian Gilbert Gottfried’s abrasive quacking of the Columbus.

阿夫拉克已经放弃了喜剧演员吉尔伯特·戈特弗里德对哥伦布一家的粗暴打击。

Accommodating [a.] willing to help and do things for other people 随和的,肯通融的

e.g. But however accommodating English might be.

但无论英语有多么方便。

Accusation [n.] a statement saying that sb has done sth morally wrong, illegal, or unkind, or the fact of accusing sb 指责,指控

e.g. I don’t want to lay myself open to accusations of favoritism or even corruption.

我不想让自己接受偏袒甚至腐败的指控。

acquisition [n.] the act of buying a company or a piece of land并购,收购

e.g. Welch has reshaped the company through more than 600 acquisitions and a forceful push abroad into newly emerging markets.

韦尔奇通过600多次收购和大力推动海外进入新兴市场,重塑了公司。

短语:acquisition commission 资产购置手续费"

adversarial [a.] involving people who are in opposition and who make attacks on each other 对抗性的

e.g. The thrill of a good adversarial auction cannot be overestimated.

一场强对抗性拍卖所带来的刺激感怎么形容都不为过。

短语:adversarial relationship 长期敌对关系

Aesthetic[a.]concerned with beauty and art and the understanding of beautiful things 美学的

e.g. Roman values of literary purity and aesthetic beauty.

罗马人崇尚文学纯洁和审美美的价值观。

Afield [ad.] away from home, to or at a distance 离开着家(乡),离开着

e.g. That could be seen not just by the use of English in Britain’s colonies, but also by its usefulness much farther afield.

这不仅可以通过在英国殖民地使用英语看出,还可以通过它在更远的地方看出。

Allegedly[ad.]express as though sth is a fact but without giving any proof 据说

e.g. For allegedly cheating on an open-book, take-home final in one of the school's required core classes.

在学校规定的核心课程之一的开卷期末考试中,涉嫌作弊。

Altarpiece[n.]a painting or other piece of art located near the altar in a church圣坛装饰

e.g. Religious and political commissions for altarpieces, frescoes and portraits of the rich

宗教和政治委员会的祭坛画、壁画和富人画像。

Angst [n.]a feeling of anxiety and worry about a situation, or about your life (尤指对于时世的)忧虑

e.g. English-speakers have not always been so Angst-free.

说英语的人并不总是那么没有焦虑。

antique [n.] an object such as a piece of furniture that is old and often valuable 古董

e.g. One London dealer of Russian antiques and artworks told me that he puts his most important pieces up for auction, since Russian collectors find bidding against each other a big part of the fun.

某位经营俄罗斯古董和艺术品的伦敦交易商曾告诉我,他将最有价值的藏品进行拍卖,因为俄罗斯藏家们认为乐趣主要源自相互竞价。

Appeal[n.]a formal request to a court or to sb in authority for a judgement or a decision to be changed上诉

e.g. The penalties for the students will not go into effect until June l, after which students will have 15 days to file an appeal.

对学生的处罚要到6月1日才会生效,之后学生有15天的时间提出上诉。

Appraisal [n.] the act of examining sb or sth in order to judge their qualities, success, or needs 评价,估量

e.g. Business practices display cultural differences in the nature of performance appraisals and specific achievements.

商业实践在绩效评估和具体成就方面的性质上显示出文化差异。

apprenticeship [n.] a period of time working as an apprentice; a job as an apprentice 学徒身份,学徒年限

e.g. Its students thus pass into their period of technical apprenticeship with their imaginations already practiced in connecting details with general principles.

因此,其学生进入他们的技术学徒时期,他们的想象力已经实践在连接细节与一般原则。

apron [n.] a garment of cloth or leather or plastic that is tied about the waist and worn to protect your clothing 围裙

e.g. The metaphor, however quirky for such a colossus allows Welch to mentally roll up his sleeves, slip into an apron and get behind the counter.

这个比喻,无论对于这样一个巨人来说多么古怪,都让韦尔奇在精神上卷起袖子,溜进围裙里,躲到柜台后面。

Arabic [n.] the language of the Arabs 阿拉伯语

e.g. Only nine students graduated in Arabic last year.

去年只有9名学生以阿拉伯语毕业。

assertion [n.] a statement saying that you strongly believe sth to be true; a claim 断言,主张

e.g. We need to flinch from the assertion that the main function of such a school is to produce men with a greater zest for business.

我们需要回避这样的断言,即这样一所学校的主要功能是培养对商业有更大热情的人。

短语:assertion that

assertion of

assertion about "

asset [n.] the things that a person or company owns, that can be sold to pay debts 资产

e.g. How does Welch, who sits atop a business empire with$304 billion in assets $89.3 billion in sales, and 276,000 employees scattered in more than 100 countries around the globe, do it?

韦尔奇位于一个商业帝国之上,拥有3040亿美元的资产,销售额为893亿美元,276,000名员工分散在全球100多个国家,他是如何做到的?

短语:circulating assets 流动资产

astutely [adv.] in a shrewd manner 精明地,机敏地

e.g. Much has been said and written about how Welch has transformed what was an old-line American industrial giant into a keenly competitive global growth engine, how he has astutely moved the once-Establishment maker of things into services.

关于韦尔奇如何把一个老牌的美国工业巨头转变为一个极具竞争力的全球增长引擎,他是如何巧妙地将这家曾经建立起来的制造商转变为服务业的,人们已经说了很多事,也写了很多。

Attorney general the chief lawyer for the US or for a particular state, appointed by the government 检察长,首席检察官

e.g. a second-year MBA student who serves as the student attorney general for the court.

一名二年级的MBA学生,担任最高法院的学生司法部长。

Autonomy [n.] the ability or opportunity to make your own decisions without being controlled by anyone else 自主,自主权

e.g. Autonomy that is expected and rewarded in the United States may be regarded as insubordination in China.

在美国被期望和奖励的自治权在中国可能被视为不服从命令。

B

bank balance the amount of money that sb has in their bank account at a particular time 银行存款,账户余额

e.g. According to Philippe Lamblin, the silver-tongued CEO of PrivatSea, which sources large boats for people with large bank balances, the threshold for superyacht status used to be 30 meters.

菲利普·朗布兰是“私人领海”的首席执行官,经营的正是为身家殷实的富豪购买顶级游艇的业务。据他讲,以往超级游艇的门槛尺寸是30米长。

Bankroll [v.]to support sb/sth by giving money; to finance为…提供资金,资助

e.g. the commercial power of the Medici family bankrolled Brunelleschi's dome (1437), Donatello's statue David (c.1420s)

美第奇家族的商业力量资助了布鲁内莱斯基的穹顶(1437年),多纳泰罗的大卫雕像(约1420年)。

barbaric [a.] cruel and violent and not as expected from people who are educated and respect each other 野蛮的,凶残的

e.g. “I suppose it will be just ten times as ugly and barbaric as its predecessor,” Strong

wrote.

“我想它会比它的前身粗俗丑陋10倍”,斯特朗写道。

baron [n.] a person who owns or controls a large part of a particular industry 大亨,工业巨头

e.g. Usually steel baron Lakshmi Mittal.

通常是钢铁大亨拉克希米·米塔尔。

Bazaar[n.]a street or an area of a town where there are many small shops 市场,集市

e.g. The bazaars of the East also taught European merchants new ways of doing business.

东方的集市也教会了欧洲商人做生意的新方法。

bedevil [v.] to cause a lot of problems and difficulties for sb/sth over a period of time 搅扰,使苦恼

e.g. His slight stutter,a handicap that has bedeviled him since childhood, makes him oddly vulnerable.

他轻微的口吃,一个从小困扰他的障碍,使他奇怪的脆弱。

bid [v.] to offer prices for sth, especially at an auction 竞买,出价

e.g. One London dealer of Russian antiques and artworks told me that he puts his most important pieces up for auction, since Russian collectors find bidding against each other a big part of the fun.

某位经营俄罗斯古董和艺术品的伦敦交易商曾告诉我,他将最有价值的藏品进行拍卖,因为俄罗斯藏家们认为乐趣主要源自相互竞价。

blatantly [ad.] done in an obvious and open way without caring if people are shocked 公然地,露骨地

e.g. One major reason is the structural change in the world economy globalization and the flood of goods dumped in poor countries that are marketed by mass seductive advertising which is blatantly superficial but nonetheless successful in creating fresh desires in peoples of traditional societies.

主要原因之一就是世界经济的结构性变化:全球化和洪水般倾销到贫穷国家的大量商品,后者以大量诱人的广告进行推销,透出露骨的肤浅劲儿,但还是成功地在传统社会的各国人民当中催生了新的欲望。

bombard [v.] to attack sb with a lot of questions, criticisms, etc. or by giving them too much information 连珠炮似地提问,信息轰炸

e.g. At the same time people are increasingly bombarded with new images, new music, new clothes and new values.

与此同时,越来越多的新影像、新音乐、新服饰和新价值劈头盖脸向人们袭来。

bunch [n.] (singular, informal) a group of people 一群人

e.g. Besides, the rich are an inventive bunch, and were there any attempts to restrict their spending, they would soon figure out how to circumvent them.

此外,富人阶层是富有创造力的阶层,倘若有任何企图限制他们花钱,他们不久便会想出办法规避。

短语:a bunch of 一束

Bureaucratic [a.] relating to a system of controlling or managing a country, company , or organization that is operated by a large number of officials 官僚的,官僚主义的

e.g. Thereby building informal social networks that can be used strategically to circumvent the bureaucracy.

因此,非正式的社交网络可以战略性地用来规避官僚机构。

C

candid [adj.] characterized by directness in manner or speech; without subtlety or evasion坦白的,率真的

e.g. Every salary increases or decrease, every bonus, and every stock- option grant to Welch's 20 or so direct reports comes with a candid talk about expectations and performance.

每一次加薪或减薪,每一笔奖金,以及给韦尔奇20份左右的直接报告的每一笔股票期权授予,都伴随着对期望和业绩的坦率的谈论。

短语:candid camera偷拍

candor [n.] the quality of being honest and straightforward in attitude and speech 坦白,直率

e.g. He does it because he encourages near-brutal candor in the meetings he holds to guide the company through each work year.

他这样做是因为他鼓励在为指导公司度过每个工作年而召开的会议上,采取近乎野蛮的坦率。

celebrated [adj.] widely known and esteemed有名望的

e.g. This is face-to-face with Jack, not so much as the celebrated chairman and chief executive of GE, the company he has made the most valuable in the world

这与杰克面对面,与其说是著名的通用电气董事长兼首席执行官,不如说他是全球最有价值的公司。

短语:celebrated for 因……著名

Ceramics[n.]objects made of clay that has been made permanently hard by heat陶瓷

This was where Spanish and Italian merchants travelled to purchase the luxury goods, like silk, spices and ceramics.

这是西班牙和意大利商人前往购买奢侈品,如丝绸,香料和陶瓷。

chieftain [n.] the leader of a group of people 酋长,首领

e.g. For 17 years, while big companies and their chieftains tumbled like dominoes in an unforgiving global economy, Welch has led GE to one revenue and earnings record after another.

17年来,尽管在无情的全球经济中,大公司及其首席执行官像多米诺骨牌一样暴跌,但韦尔奇却带领通用电气创下了一个又一个收入和盈利记录。

Circumvent [v.] to avoid sth, especially cleverly or illegally 避免,绕开

e.g. Thereby building informal social networks that can be used strategically to circumvent the bureaucracy.

因此,非正式的社交网络可以战略性地用来规避官僚机构。

colossus [n.] sb/ sth that is abnormally large and powerful 庞然大物,大企业

e.g. The metaphor, however quirky for such a colossus allows Welch to mentally roll up his sleeves, slip into an apron and get behind the counter.

这个比喻,无论对于这样一个巨人来说多么古怪,都让韦尔奇在精神上卷起袖子,溜进围裙里,躲到柜台后面。

commission [v.] to formally choose sb to do a special piece of work 委托制作(某事物)

e.g. Roman Abramovich is said to have commissioned the world’s largest yacht.

据说罗曼·阿布拉莫维奇已经委托建造了世界上最大的游艇。

Commission[n.]a formal request to sb to design or make a piece of work such as a building or a painting请某人作建筑设计或者作一幅画等的正式委托

e.g. Religious and political commissions for altarpieces, frescoes and portraits of the rich

宗教和政治委员会的祭坛画、壁画和富人画像。

commodity [n.] a product or a raw material that can be bought and sold 商品

e.g. Production and consumption of cultural goods and services have become commodities, along with the essentials of social life (marriage and family life, religion, work and leisure), that are the crucibles of cultural creation.

文化商品和服务的生产与消费已经成为商品,连同堪称文化创新熔炉的社会生活基本要素(婚姻和家庭生活、宗教、工作和休闲)也未能幸免。

Conciliatory [a.] intended to show that you care about the feelings or opinions of sb who is angry or upset with you 调和的,安抚的

e.g. Interpersonal communication is likely to be indirect, conciliatory in tone, and formal.

人际交流可能是间接的,调和的和正式的。

confess [v.] to admit, to make a clean breast of 坦白, 承认

e.g. “I'm so nervous,"" the manager confessed to Welch.

"我太紧张了,"经理向韦尔奇坦言。

短语:confess to 承认,忏悔

Confrontational [a.] tending to deal with people in an aggressive way that is likely to cause or involve angry disagreement 对抗的,挑衅的

e.g. Interpersonal communication is typically direct, confrontational, face-to-face, and informal.

人际交流通常是直接的、对抗性的、面对面的和非正式的。

Consistency[n.] [approving]the quality of always behaving in the same way or of having the same opinions, standard, etc.; the quality of being consistent 一致性,连贯性

e.g. When the professor for the class noticed some unusual consistencies among students' answers on the final exam and as well as on assignments given during the course.

当教授注意到学生们在期末考试的答案和课程布置的作业上有一些不寻常的一致性时。

Constitute [v.] to form or make sth 构成,组成

e.g. Skills constitute “competence” in the business context?

技能是否构成了业务环境中的“能力”?

construe [v.] to understand the meaning of a word,a sentence, or an action in a particular way; to interpret 解释,领会,理解

e.g. It requires an imaginative understanding of laws of political economy not merely in the abstract, but also with the power to construe them in terms of the particular circumstances of a concrete business.

它需要对政治经济学的规律有一种富有想象力的理解,不仅是抽象的,而且要有能力根据具体企业的具体情况来解释这些规律。

短语:construe sth as sth 把某事物解释为某事物

convey [v.] to make ideas, feelings, etc. known to sb; to communicate 传达,表达

e.g. But the primary reason for their existence is not to be found either in the mere knowledge conveyed to the students or in the mere opportunities for research afforded to the members of the faculty

但是,他们存在的主要原因,既不在于传授给学生的知识,也不在于提供给教师进行研究的机会.

短语:convey sth to sb 将某事传达给某人

corrosive [a.] tending to destroy sth slowly 渐渐破坏地

e.g. Such a radical undermining of people's existing values and cultures has a corrosive impact on their sense of who they are, what they want and what they respect.

对人们已有价值和文化如此彻底的破坏势必会侵蚀人们有关身份、所求与所敬的观念。

Counterpart [n.] a person or thing that has the same purpose as another one in a different place or organization 对应的人或物,职务相当的人

e.g. U.S. managers are far more likely to fail in their missions and to return home prematurely than are their Japanese or European counterparts.

美国的经理比日本或欧洲的经理更容易无法完成任务,并提前回国。

cram [v.] to push or force sb/sth into a small space 把……塞满

e.g. His New York palazzo started a frenzy of competitive mansion-building among the late-19th-and early-20th-century rich, who chose to display their fortunes by cramming diverse architectural styles (Renaissance, medieval, any number of Louis, Moorish, you name it) into vast houses along Fifth Avenue and in the resort of Newport.

他在纽约的宫殿在19世纪末、20世纪初的富人阶层中掀起了一股竞相造厦的狂潮,各种风格的宏大建筑充斥在第五大道的两侧和纽波特的度假胜地,有文艺复兴风的、中世纪风的、路易士风的、阿拉伯风的……数不胜数。

creep [v.] to move slowly, quietly and carefully, usually in order to avoid being noticed 蹑足前进,秘密地或谨慎地移动

e.g. Sometimes it seems as if a tidal wave of the worst Western culture is creeping across the globe like a giant strawberry milkshake oozing over the planet, with a flavor that is distinctly sweet, sickly and manifestly homogenous.

有时,最为不堪的西方文化像海啸一样铺天盖地,像是大量溢出的草莓奶昔,要糊住整个星球。其滋味自不必说——独有的甜腻,在哪儿也都是这个味儿,让人有点犯恶心。

crucible [n.] (formal or literary) a place or situation in which different cultures or styles can mix together to produce sth new and exciting (比喻)熔炉

e.g. Production and consumption of cultural goods and services have become commodities, along with the essentials of social life (marriage and family life, religion, work and leisure), that are the crucibles of cultural creation.

文化商品和服务的生产与消费已经成为商品,连同堪称文化创新熔炉的社会生活基本要素(婚姻和家庭生活、宗教、工作和休闲)也未能幸免。

cruise [n.] a journey by sea, visiting different places, especially as a holiday/vacation 航游,游弋

e.g. Lamblin recalls joining the cruise of one of his clients and putting in at a harbor in the Mediterranean next to someone he knew.

朗布兰回忆起随一位客户出海的情景,游艇停靠在地中海某个港湾,与他们毗邻的游艇主人与这位客户相识。

cumulative [a.] having a result that increases in strength or importance each time more of sth is added 累积的

e.g. The cumulative effect in Africa is a crisis of cultural confidence, combined with the increased economic uncertainty and crime which global integration often brings.

其在非洲日积月累的结果便是文化自信的危机,以及往往由全球融合所带来的经济上更大的不确定性和更多的犯罪行为。

D

dash off to write or draw sth very quickly 迅速地写或画

e.g. Yet Welch spoke to Woodburn about the decision on the telephone and within a day dashed off personal note to him.

然而,韦尔奇在电话中与伍德本谈了有关这一决定,并在一天之内就给他记下了个人通知。

dazzle [v.] to impress sb a lot with your beauty, skill, etc. 使赞叹,使倾倒

e.g. Once upon a time, Aristotle Onassis dazzled the world with the Christina O, which at just under 100 meters was considered a floating palace.

曾几何时,亚里士多德·奥纳西斯的“克里斯蒂娜 O”游艇举世瞩目,这将近100米的邮轮被公认为浮动的宫殿。

decree [v.] to judge or order sth. officially 裁定,颁布

e.g. This is a sort of league table for the super-rich, a survey of the British wealthscape that decrees who comes out on top.

这是份超级富豪的排行榜,调查英国(超级富豪的)财富状况,用以裁定谁能荣登榜首。

Delegate [v.] to give a particular job, duty, etc., to sb else so that they do it for you 授权,放权给

e.g. Superiors are expected to participate in many decisions that U.S. managers might routinely delegate to subordinates.

上级预计将参与许多美国经理可能经常委托给下属的决策

Deliberate[v.] (for a movement or an action) done slowly and carefully 反复斟酌,仔细考虑

e.g. Said in a written summary of the board hearings that the board spent several weeks “deliberating at length” the circumstances of the case.

在一份听证会的书面摘要中表示,该委员会花了数周时间仔细审议“此案的具体情况”。

demolish [v.] to pull or knock down a building 拆毁,拆除

e.g. In 1864, George Templeton Strong noted in his diary that department-store magnate A. T. Stewart had purchased a Fifth Avenue brownstone and decided to demolish it in favor of erecting a white marble palace.

1864年,乔治·坦普顿·斯特朗在日记中提到,百货大楼巨头A.T.斯图尔特购买了一座位于第五大道的赤褐色砂石建筑,决定将其拆除改建成一座白色大理石宫殿。

Denglisch [n.]a portmanteau of the words Deutsch and English referring to incorrect English that is influenced by German 德式英语

e.g. Even Germany feels it necessary to resist the spread of Denglisch.

甚至德国也觉得有必要抵制德式英语的传播。

discard [v.] to get rid of sth that you no longer want or need 丢弃,抛弃

e.g. The familiar and old are to be discarded.

熟悉的、老旧的,都该被弃如敝屣。

disorientation [n.] intellectual or moral confusion 理智或道德的混乱

e.g. More importantly, colonialism paved the way for today's cultural globalization by leaving the colonized in a state of cultural disorientation and consequently vulnerable to continuing cultural invasion.

更重要的是,殖民主义为今天的文化全球化铺平了道路,使殖民地人民陷入文化迷失,从而使他们在持续的文化入侵面前变得不堪一击。

displace [v.] to move sth from its usual position 移走,转移

e.g. In conclusion, cultural globalization, or worldwide McDonaldization, destroys diversity and displaces the opportunity to sustain decent human life through an assortment of many different cultures.

总之,文化全球化,或者全球麦当劳化,摧毁了多样性,排除了通过不同文化维系有尊严的人类生活的可能。

dispute [v.] to say that sth such as a fact or idea is not correct or true表示异议,质疑

e.g. Few would dispute that Welch is seen as a demanding, no-nonsense executive who arouses a mixture of awe and fear.

很少有人会质疑韦尔奇被视为一个要求苛刻、无稽之谈的高管,他激起了敬畏和恐惧的混合体。

短语:labor dispute 劳动争议

Ditch [v.]to get rid of sth or sb that is no longer wanted 摆脱,抛弃

e.g. Aflac has ditched comedian Gilbert Gottfried’s abrasive quacking of the Columbus.

阿夫拉克已经放弃了喜剧演员吉尔伯特·戈特弗里德对哥伦布一家的粗暴打击。

diverse [a.] very different from each other and of various kinds 多种多样的

e.g. His New York palazzo started a frenzy of competitive mansion-building among the late-19th-and early-20th-century rich, who chose to display their fortunes by cramming diverse architectural styles (Renaissance, medieval, any number of Louis, Moorish, you name it) into vast houses along Fifth Avenue and in the resort of Newport.

他在纽约的宫殿在19世纪末、20世纪初的富人阶层中掀起了一股竞相造厦的狂潮,各种风格的宏大建筑充斥在第五大道的两侧和纽波特的度假胜地,有文艺复兴风的、中世纪风的、路易士风的、阿拉伯风的……数不胜数。

短语:be diverse from 不同于

domineering [n.] (disapproving) trying to control other people without considering their opinions or feelings 盛气凌人的,专横的

e.g. While an important feature of globalization today is its de-Westernization (with the emergence of some non-Western nations--like Japan--as key actors), the reality is that in many important respects, Western culture (some would say American culture) remains the domineering force in the world today.

尽管当今全球化的一个重要特征就是去西方化(以日本之类非西方国家的兴起为主要现象),现实情况是,在诸多重要方面,西方文化(或言美国文化)在当今世界仍然是主导力量。

domino [n.] one of a set of small flat pieces of wood, plastic etc., with different numbers of spots used for playing a game 多米诺骨牌

e.g. For 17 years, while big companies and their chieftains tumbled like dominoes in an unforgiving global economy, Welch has led GE to one revenue and earnings record after another.

17年来,尽管在无情的全球经济中,大公司及其首席执行官像多米诺骨牌一样暴跌,但韦尔奇却带领通用电气创下了一个又一个收入和盈利记录。

drape [v.] to arrange (cloth or clothing) loosely or casually on or round sth (使)随便地悬挂,(使)松散垂下

e.g. He scoots down to The Pit - the well of a bright, multitiered lecture hall - peels off his blue suit jacket, and drapes it over one of the swivel seats.

他溜到坑——一个明亮,多层的讲堂的井——剥去他的蓝色西装夹克并披在一个旋转的座位上。

短语:drape sheeting 【医】布单,被单,床单

drudgery [n.] hard boring work苦工,单调乏味的工作

e.g. Hence, instead of a drudgery issuing in a blind rule of thumb, the properly trained man has some hope of obtaining an imagination disciplined by detailed facts and by necessary habits.

因此,这个训练有素的人没有盲目地用经验法则来发苦差事,而是希望获得一种被详细事实和必要习惯所约束的想象力。

dub [v.] to give sb/sth a name that describes them in some way 把……称为

e.g. Justified initially as a civilizing mission and subsequently dubbed modernization, in practice it was wholesale Westernization with very little room for any viable middle ground.

最初打着文明教化的旗号,后来则又冠以现代化之名,而其实只不过是彻头彻尾的西化,几无中间地带可言。

dull [n.] to make less sharp, less clear, or slow in thinking, learning, and understanding 使变迟钝,使不敏感的

e.g. There can be no criticism of the custom, but there may be an unfortunate effect - prolonged routine work dulls the imagination.

不能对习俗提出任何批评,但可能会有一个不幸的后果——长时间的日常工作使想象变得迟钝。

短语:dull purple 暗紫色

E

eclipse [v.] to make sb/ sth seem dull or unimportant by comparison 使失色,盖过

e.g. Fortunately, the competitive foibles of one generation's billionaires are often eclipsed by those of the next.

幸运的是,在富豪竞富这一无伤大雅的癖好上,常常是长江后浪推前浪,一代更比一代强。

短语:solar eclipse 日食;lunar eclipse 月食

Elasticity [n.] the quality of being adaptable 灵活性,顺应性

e.g. But its elasticity makes it messier, as well as stronger.

但它的弹性使它更模糊,也更强大

elicit [v] to get information or a reaction from sb, often with difficulty 引出,探出

e.g. It works by eliciting the general principles which apply to the facts, as they exist.

它通过引出适用于存在事实的一般原则而起作用。

短语:elicit sth from sb 套出(信息)

elite [n.] a group of people in a society, etc. who are powerful and have a lot of influence, because they are rich, intelligent, etc. 精英

e.g. But historically those rules were often used to keep the lower classes in their place rather than to rein in the excesses of the elite.

但从历史角度而言,这些规定通常用于使下层民众安分守己,而非控制精英阶层的骄奢淫逸。

Embezzle[v.]to steal money that you are responsible for or that belongs to your employer盗用,侵吞,贪污

e.g. It's kind of like a businessperson who has the opportunity to embezzle money in the dark of night,”

“这有点像一个商人有机会在黑暗中挪用资金晚上。

emerging [adj.] in an early state of development 新兴的,发展初期的

e.g. Welch has reshaped the company through more than 600 acquisitions and a forceful push abroad into newly emerging markets.

韦尔奇通过600多次收购和大力推动海外进入新兴市场,重塑了公司。

短语:emerging market 新兴市场

Encroach [v.]to gradually take more of sb’s tome, possessions, rights etc. than you should 侵犯,蚕食

e.g. As the 20th century drew on, however, and English continued to encroach, French was driven on to defensive.

然而,随着20世纪的临近,英国人继续侵占,法国人被迫进行防御。

endeavor [n.] an attempt to do sth, especially sth new or difficult 努力,试图,尝试

短语:endeavor to do sth 努力去做

e.g. There is one great difficulty which hampers all the higher types of human endeavor.

有一个很大的困难阻碍了所有更高类型的人类努力。

Esperanto [n.] an artificial language invented in 1887 to help people from different countries in the world speak to each other 世界语

e.g. But then who’s for Esperanto?

但是谁是世界语的人呢?

Ethnocentricity [n.] the natural favoritism of one/s own ethnic group over other ethnic groups wherein the individual cultural group’s values, norms and beliefs are seen as superior to all others 民族优越感,民族中心主义

e.g. The underlying problem is top management’s ethnocentricity.

潜在的问题是高层管理层的种族中心问题。

evaluation [n.] the act of forming an opinion of the amount, value or quality of sth after thinking about it carefully; assessment 评价,评估

e.g. It requires that discipline of character which can say ""yes” “no” to other and men, not by reason of blind obstinacy, but with firmness derived from a conscious evaluation of relevant alternatives.

它需要一种能对他人说“是”“不”的人格训练,而男人,不是因为盲目的固执,而是由于对相关选择的有意识的评估而产生的坚定

短语:evaluation criteria 评价标准

evoke [v.] to bring a feeling, a memory or an image into your mind 引起,唤起

e.g. It requires an imaginative vision of the binding forces of any human organization, a sympathetic vision of the limits of human nature and of the conditions which evoke loyalty of service.

它要求对任何人类组织的约束力有一个富有想象力的看法,对人性的限度有一种同情的看法以及唤起忠诚服务的条件。

excess [n.] an amount or extent that is more than necessary, reasonable or acceptable 过量,过度

e.g. Such over-the-top competition can be traced back to ancient Rome, which invoked sumptuary laws to tame the excess.

这种顶级竞争可追溯到古罗马时期,当时不得不通过“限奢令”让奢侈无度有所收敛。

短语:in excess of 超过,较…为多

excess [n.] an amount or extent that is more than necessary, reasonable or acceptable 过量,过度

e.g. Such over-the-top competition can be traced back to ancient Rome, which invoked sumptuary laws to tame the excess.

这种顶级竞争可追溯到古罗马时期,当时不得不通过“限奢令”让奢侈无度有所收敛。

短语:in excess of 超过,较…为多

exhilarating [a.] very exciting and enjoyable 令人喜欢的,使人愉快的

e.g. For some, especially the young, these new products and content with new ideas can be exhilarating.

对这些人而言,尤其是年轻人,这些新产品和新奇的想法令人欣喜。

Expel[v.] to officially make sb leave a school or an organization开除

Of the remaining 34 students, 9 will be expelled, 15 will be suspended for one year and receive an F in the class.

在剩下的34名学生中,9名将被开除,15名将被停学一年,并获得F的成绩。

Expulsion[n.]the act of forcing sb to leave a place; the act of expelling sb开除,除名

e.g. The students were brought before the school's Judicial Board and are facing a wide range of punitive measures, including expulsion.

学生们被带到学校法庭受审并面临包括开除在内的一系列惩罚措施。

Exterminate [v.] to kill all the members of a group of people or animals; to destroy completely 消灭,根除

e.g. In India some people see English as an oppressive legacy of colonialism that should be exterminated.

在印度,一些人认为英语是殖民主义的压迫性遗产,应该被消灭。

Extinction [n.] a situation in which a plant, an animal, a way of life etc. stop existing 灭绝

e.g. Yet the extinction of most languages is probably unstoppable.

然而,大多数语言的灭绝可能是不可阻挡的。

F

Far/Farther/Further afield far away from home; to or in places that are not near 远离(尤指家乡),在远处

e.g. That could be seen not just by the use of English in Britain’s colonies, but also by its usefulness much farther afield.

这不仅可以通过在英国殖民地使用英语看出,还可以通过它在更远的地方看出。

far-flung [adj.] spread out over a very large area 分布广泛的

e.g. Less well understood, however, is how Jack Welch is able to wield so much influence and power over the most far-flung complex organization in all of American business.

然而,不太清楚的是,杰克·韦尔奇是如何能够对全美企业中最遥远的复杂组织施加如此大的影响力和权力的。

Fragmented[a.] existed in separate part, pieces or fractions; divided碎片的,不完整的

e.g. A politically fragmented and economically undeveloped Europe looked to the cultures of the east for luxury, wealth and new ways of doing business.

一个政治分裂、经济不发达的欧洲,从东方文化中寻找奢侈品、财富和新的商业方式。

Favoritism [n.] unfair support shown to one person or group, especially by sb in authority 偏爱,偏袒

e.g. I don’t want to lay myself open to accusations of favoritism or even corruption.

我不想让自己接受偏袒甚至腐败的指控。

feeble [adj] a very weak 虚弱的,无力的

e.g. The tragedy of the world is that those who are imaginative have but slight experience, and those who are experienced have feeble imaginations.

世界的悲剧在于那些富有想象力的人缺乏经验,而那些有经验的人却缺乏想象力。

短语:feeble-minded 意识薄弱的

fierce [adj.] marked by extreme intensity of emotions or convictions; fervid 热切的,极度的

e.g. And he does it because, above all else, he's a fierce believer in the power of his people.

他这么做是因为,最重要的是,他坚信自己人民的力量。

短语:fierce competition 激烈竞争

flinch [v.] to avoid thinking about or doing sth unpleasant 不想,不做(不愉快的事),畏缩不前

e.g. We need to flinch from the assertion that the main function of such a school is to produce men with a greater zest for business.

我们需要回避这样的断言,即这样一所学校的主要功能是培养对商业有更大热情的人。

短语:flinch at 畏缩

flinch from

not flinch from ( doing ) sth 不回避做某事

Fogy [n.] also fogeya person with old-fashioned ideas which he is unwilling to change 守旧者

e.g. However much some fogies may resist them.

但是有些守旧者会抵抗它们。

foible [n.] a silly habit or a strange or weak aspect of a person’s character, that is considered harmless by other people 怪癖,小缺点

e.g. Fortunately, the competitive foibles of one generation's billionaires are often eclipsed by those of the next.

幸运的是,在富豪竞富这一无伤大雅的癖好上,常常是长江后浪推前浪,一代更比一代强。

form letter an impersonal letter in a standardized format sent to multiple recipients 套用信函,群发正式信函

e.g. There are no form letters from Welch, not to employees, managers, executives, or even directors in the GE boardroom.

韦尔奇没有给员工、经理、高管甚至通用电气董事会董事的表格信件。

fortress [n.] a building or place that has been made stronger and protected against attack 堡垒,要塞

e.g. One such Gilded Age hostess, inordinately proud of her “medieval” fortress, was once heard to remark of the Duke of Atholl's 13th-century house, Blair Castle: “It's not correct. There are a lot of mistakes. My castle at Sandy Point is far more authentic!”

一位“镀金时代”的女主人对自己“中世纪”风格的堡垒感到骄傲不已,有人听闻她评论13世纪阿索尔公爵的布莱尔城堡时称:“(布莱尔城堡)造的不对,错误百出,我的城堡远比它正宗!”

fraction [n.] a small part or item forming a piece of a whole 小部分

e.g. Many CEOs wrestle to squeeze just average performance from companies a fraction of GE's size.

许多首席执行官努力从通用电气规模很小的公司中榨取平均绩效。

短语:improper fraction 假分数

Fragmented[a.]existed in separate part, pieces or fractions; divided碎片的,不完整的

frenzy [n.] a state of great activity and strong emotion that is often violent or frightening and not under control 狂乱,狂热

e.g. His New York palazzo started a frenzy of competitive mansion-building among the late-19th-and early-20th-century rich.

他在纽约的豪宅引发了19世纪末20世纪初的富人争相建造豪宅的热潮。

Frescoes[n.]a picture that is painted on a wall while the plaster is still wet湿壁画(墙壁灰泥未干时绘)

e.g. Religious and political commissions for altarpieces, frescoes and portraits of the rich

宗教和政治委员会的祭坛画、壁画和富人画像。

fundamentalism [n.] the practice of following very strictly the basic rules and teachings of any religion (宗)原教旨主义

e.g. Obviously, it would be an excessive form of cultural fundamentalism to suggest that Africans should try to keep everything exactly as it is rather than allowing culture to develop.

显然,假如提出非洲民众应尽量保持现状,不许文化有所发展,那将成为文化原教旨主义的一种过度的形式。

G

Galore [a.]in large quantities 很多的

e.g. Every year publishers bring out new dictionaries listing neologisms galore.

每年,出版商都会推出大量新词的新词典。

Gamut [n.] the whole range of things that can be included in sth 整个范围,全部

e.g. Indeed, the entire gamut of issues that businesspeople must confront.

事实上,商人们必须面对的所有问题。

Go out of business to stop operating as a business, especially because of financial problems; to fail miserably 破产,倒闭,凋零

e.g. A couple go out of business each week.

每周都有一对夫妇破产。

H

Hack[v.]to secretly find a way of looking at and/or changing information on sb else’s computer system without permission. (对他人计算机系统的)入侵

e.g. In 2005, Harvard Business School rejected119 applicants accused of hacking the school's admissions Web site.

2005年,哈佛商学院(Harvard Business School)拒绝了119名被控侵入招生网站的申请者。

Hectic [a.] very busy; full of activity繁忙的

e.g. Duke is a hectic MBA business school, and employers want good grades, so there's a lot of pressure to do well.

杜克是一所忙乱的MBA商学院,雇主们都希望取得好成绩,所以要取得好成绩,压力很大。

hamper [v.] to prevent sb from easily doing or achieving sth; to hinder 阻碍,妨碍

e.g. There is one great difficulty which hampers all the higher types of human endeavor.

有一个很大的困难阻碍了所有更高类型的人类努力。

Have little/everything to do with (not)to be related or involved with 与.....相关

e.g. The success or failure of a language has little to do with its inherent qualities “and everything to do with the power of the people who speak it.”

一种语言的成败与其固有的品质无关,“而一切也与说一个语言的人的力量有关”。

hegemony [n.] (formal) control by one country, organization, etc. within a particular group 支配权,霸权

e.g. Western culture fuels globalization today and, as it did during the age of imperialism and colonization, helps to reinforce the hegemony of the West.

一如帝国主义时期和殖民时期,西方文化今天仍然推动着全球化的进程、巩固着西方霸权。

Heterogeneity [n.] the quality of consisting of parts or things that are very different from each other 多种多样,异成分混杂

e.g. Most people recognize that the cultural heterogeneity of the workforce brings with it special challenges and opportunities.

大多数人都认识到,劳动力的文化异质性由此带来了特殊的挑战和机遇。

I

illuminate [v] to make sth clearer or easier to understand 阐明,启迪

e.g. Imagination is not to be divorced from the facts it is a way off illuminating the facts.

想象不能脱离事实,它是一种照亮事实的方法

imbibe [v.] (formal) to absorb sth, especially information 吸收,接受(观点、价值观等)

e.g. Suddenly, people all over Africa and the rest of the non-Westernized regions of the world, appear to be imbibing materialistic and individualistic values previously associated with Western culture.

突然之间,非洲及全球其他非西方地区的人们似乎都在接纳着以前只是跟西方文化挂钩的那些物质主义和个人主义的价值观念了。

impact [n.] a forceful consequence; a strong effect 影响

e.g. His handwritten notes sent to everyone from direct reports to hourly workers possess enormous impact, too.

他手写的笔记发给每个人,从直接报告到小时工,也具有巨大的影响

短语:impact on 影响"

impart [v.] to pass information, knowledge, etc. to other people 给予,传授,告知

e.g. The university imparts information, but imparts it imaginatively At least, this is the function which it should perform for society

大学提供信息,但是富有想象力地提供信息。至少,这是它应该为社会发挥的作用

短语:impart sth to sth

Implement[v.][formal]to make sth that has been officially decided start to happen or be used 实施,执行

e.g. The scandal comes at a time when many business schools are taking a closer look at their honor codes and implementing new measures such as student-run courts meant to discourage students from deceiving the school's faculty.

这起丑闻发生之际,许多商学院正在密切关注自己的荣誉准则,并实施新措施,如学生管理的法庭,以阻止学生欺骗学校的教师。

Implicate[v.]to show or suggest that sb is involved in sth bad or criminal 与(犯罪或不诚实行为)有牵连

e.g. Says the large number of students implicated in the Duke case is above average.

杜克大学案件牵涉的学生人数超过了平均水平

Ingeniousness[n.]the quality of having a lot of clever new ideas and good at inventing things 巧妙,灵巧

e.g. I marveled at the subtle ingeniousness of people in foreign lands.

我惊叹于外国人的精明能干."

inordinately [ad.] to a far higher degree than is usual or expected 无节制地,过度地

e.g. One such Gilded Age hostess, inordinately proud of her “medieval” fortress, was once heard to remark of the Duke of Atholl's 13th-century house, Blair Castle: “It's not correct. There are a lot of mistakes. My castle at Sandy Point is far more authentic!”

一位“镀金时代”的女主人对自己“中世纪”风格的堡垒感到骄傲不已,有人听闻她评论13世纪阿索尔公爵的布莱尔城堡时称:“(布莱尔城堡)造的不对,错误百出,我的城堡远比它正宗!”

Inquisitive[a.]very interested in learning about many different things好问的,好奇的,好追根究底的

e.g. Durer was a worldly and inquisitive artist

Durer是一位世俗而好奇的艺术家

integration [n.] the act or process of combining two or more things so that they work together 结合,融合

e.g. The end result becomes global integration at the expense of local disintegration.

最终的结果便是以本土离析为代价的全球融合。

Integrity[n.]the quality of being honest and having strong moral principles正直,诚实

e.g. "It is my utmost hope that all of the individuals found guilty of violating our Honor Code will learn how precious a gift honor and integrity is."

“我最大的希望是,所有违反我们荣誉准则的人都能明白,荣誉和正直是多么珍贵的礼物。”

Interlocking [adj.] mutually connected 相互连结的

e.g. it requires an imaginative grasp of the interlocking interests of great organizations, and of the reactions of the whole complex to any change in one of its elements.

它需要对大组织的内在利益有一种富有想象力的把握,以及对整个联合体对其中一个要素的任何变化所做出的反应的把握。

Interlock [v.] (使)连锁,(使)紧密连接

Intermediary [n.] sb who carries messages between propel who are unwilling or unable to meet 中间人,调解人

e.g. Often an intermediary is used, and the real decision making occurs privately and away from the actual negotiations.

通常使用中介人,真正的决策是私下进行的,远离实际的谈判。

Intricate[a.]having a lot of different parts and small details that fit together错综复杂的

e.g. International finance became increasingly liquid and intricate during the 13th, 14th and 15th centuries,

13、14、15世纪,国际金融变得日益流动和复杂

invoke [v.] to put into effect or operation 行使(法权等),实施

e.g. Such over-the-top competition can be traced back to ancient Rome, which invoked sumptuary laws to tame the excess.

这种顶级竞争可追溯到古罗马时期,当时不得不通过“限奢令”让奢侈无度有所收敛。

J

jittery [adj.] being in a tense state 紧张不安的

e.g. Not long ago, recalls human-relations chief William J. Conaty, one manager who had to make a presentation before Welch was so jittery, he was shaking.

不久前,人际关系主管威廉·科纳蒂回忆说,一位经理在韦尔奇如此紧张地颤抖着之前,不得不做一次演讲。

Justification [n.] a good reason why sth exists or is done. 正当的理由,辩解的理由

e.g. The justification for a university is that it preserves the connection between knowledge and the zest of life, by uniting the young and the old in the imaginative consideration of learning

大学存在的理由是,它通过把年轻人和老年人在对学习的富有想象力的思考中结合起来,保持了知识和生活情趣之间的联系。

短语:justification for (doing) sth 有理由做某事

K

keenly [adv.] in an eager and discriminating manner 敏锐地,强烈地

e.g. Much has been said and written about how Welch has transformed what was an old-line American industrial giant into a keenly competitive global growth engine, how he has astutely moved the once-Establishment maker of things into services.

关于韦尔奇如何把一个老牌的美国工业巨头转变为一个极具竞争力的全球增长引擎,他是如何巧妙地将这家曾经建立起来的制造商转变为服务业的,人们已经说了很多事,也写了很多。

L

Lament [v.] to feel or express great sadness or disappointment about sb/sth 为.....感到悲痛,对......表示失望

e.g. This in sometimes lamented even in England itself.

这一点,甚至在英国本身,有时也会感到哀叹。

Lavish[v.]to give a lot of sth, often too much, to sb/sth慷慨的给予,挥霍

e.g. The splendor of the painting was reflected by the sheer amount of material expense lavished on its creation.

这幅画的华丽体现在其创作过程中所耗费的大量物质上。

Lay sb open to to put sb in a position where there is risk or danger, especially of criticism 使某人易遭攻击或指责

e.g. I don’t want to lay myself open to accusations of favoritism or even corruption.

我不想让自己接受偏袒甚至腐败的指控。

league table a table that shows how well people, teams or institutions are performing in comparison with each other 排名表

e.g. This is a sort of league table for the super-rich.

这是份超级富豪的排行榜。

Legacy [n.] a situation that exists now because of events, actions, etc. that took place in the past 遗留问题

e.g. In India some people see English as an oppressive legacy.

在印度,一些人认为英语是一种压迫性的遗产。

Liquid[a.]in cash,or that can easily be changed into cash 易装换成现款的

e.g. International finance became increasingly liquid and intricate during the 13th, 14th and 15th centuries.

13、14、15世纪,国际金融变得日益流动和复杂

Lucrative[a.]producing a large amount of money; making a large profit获利多的,赚钱的

e.g. They used ""bills of exchange”, forerunners of the modern cheque, to lucrative contracts with Muslim merchants.

他们使用现代支票的前身“汇票”与穆斯林商人签订利润丰厚的合同。

luxury [n.] a thing that is expensive and enjoyable but not essential 奢侈品

e.g. The thing about luxury goods is that while they may look like boats, cars, wristwatches or works of art, they are, as often as not, scorecards.

事实是,尽管奢侈品表面上看是诸如船舶、汽车、腕表或艺术品之类,他们更如同(富豪竞富的)计分卡。

M

magnate [n.] a person who is rich, powerful and successful, especially in business 大亨,巨头

e.g. In 1864, George Templeton Strong noted in his diary that department-store magnate A. T. Stewart had purchased a Fifth Avenue brownstone and decided to demolish it in favor of erecting a white marble palace.

1864年,乔治·坦普顿·斯特朗在日记中提到,百货大楼巨头A.T.斯图尔特购买了一座位于第五大道的赤褐色砂石建筑,决定将其拆除改建成一座白色大理石宫殿。

短语:The Magnate 叱咤风云

make for to tend to result in or be received as 促成,作为……被接纳

e.g. The Aquariva, for instance, at 10 meters and €450,000 makes for a lovely powerboat.

例如,长10米,售价45万欧元的“出水丽娃”是一款漂亮的摩托艇。

manifestly [ad.] very obviously 显然,明白地

e.g. Sometimes it seems as if a tidal wave of the worst Western culture is creeping across the globe like a giant strawberry milkshake oozing over the planet, with a flavor that is distinctly sweet, sickly and manifestly homogenous.

有时,最为不堪的西方文化像海啸一样铺天盖地,像是大量溢出的草莓奶昔,要糊住整个星球。其滋味自不必说——独有的甜腻,在哪儿也都是这个味儿,让人有点犯恶心。

medieval [a.] connected with the Middle Ages (about AD 1000 to AD 1450) 中世纪的

e.g. His New York palazzo started a frenzy of competitive mansion-building among the late-19th-and early-20th-century rich, who chose to display their fortunes by cramming diverse architectural styles (Renaissance, medieval, any number of Louis, Moorish, you name it) into vast houses along Fifth Avenue and in the resort of Newport.

他在纽约的宫殿在19世纪末、20世纪初的富人阶层中掀起了一股竞相造厦的狂潮,各种风格的宏大建筑充斥在第五大道的两侧和纽波特的度假胜地,有文艺复兴风的、中世纪风的、路易士风的、阿拉伯风的……数不胜数。

Merit [n.] the quality of being good and of deserving praise, reward or admiration 长处,优点

e.g. The merit of English as a global language is that it enables people of different countries to converse and do business with each other.

英语作为一种全球语言的优点在于,它使不同国家的人们能够相互交谈和做生意。

mingle [v.] to combine or make one thing combine with another 混合,结合

e.g. It may also bring new opportunities for cultures to mingle in creative ways.

也可以为不同文化创新性的融合创造新的机会。

Monoglot [a.] using or speaking only one language 使用单一语言的

e.g. The British are the most monoglot of all the peoples of the EU.

英国人是欧盟所有民族中使用单一语言的国家。

Multilingualism [n.] the fact or ability of speaking or using several different languages 使用多种语言的

e.g. Multilingualism is now the norm among Dutch.

多语言学现在是荷兰人的常态。

Mutation [n.] a change in the form or structure of sth 变化,转变

e.g. The mutation of meaning of “presently” from “soon” to “now”.

“现在”的意思从“很快”到“现在”的突变。

N

Neologism [n.]a new word or expression, or a new meaning of a word 新词,旧词新义

e.g. Every year publishers bring out new dictionaries listing neologisms galore.

每年,出版商都会推出大量新词的新词典。

novice [n.] a person who is new and has little experience in a skill,job or situation 初学者,新手,生手

短语:novice at 在……新手

e.g. In any large organization the younger men, who are novices,must be set to job which consist in carrying out fixed duties in obedience to orders.

在任何大型组织中,年轻男子都是新手,他们必须被安排从事工作,其中包括服从命令履行固定职责。

Nurturance [n.] loving care and attention that you give to sb or sth 养育,培养

e.g. The formation and nurturance of longer-lasting business relationships are extremely important.

长期商业关系的形成和培育是极其重要的。

Nurture[v.]to help sb/sth to develop and be successful; to foster 培养,养育

e.g. The Renaissance was a specifically Italian phenomenon, nurtured in the city-states of the l5th century.

文艺复兴是意大利特有的现象,在15世纪的城邦中孕育。

O

obedience [n.] the fact of doing what you are told to do or of being willing to obey服从,顺从

e.g. In any large organization the younger men, who are novices,must be set to job which consist in carrying out fixed duties in obedience to orders.

在任何大型组织中,年轻男子都是新手,他们必须被安排从事工作,其中包括服从命令履行固定职责。

短语:in obedience to sth 服从于某事

obsess [v.] to completely fill your mind so that you cannot think of anything else, in a way that is not normal 使着迷,使心神不宁

e.g. Today that is not nearly enough to keep status-obsessed plutocrats from feeling inadequate.

现如今,一心显摆身份和地位的富豪们对这个尺寸早就不屑一顾。

obstinacy [n.] the state of refusing to change your opinions, way of behaving, etc. when other people try to persuade you to; stubbornness 固执,顽固,倔强

e.g. It requires that discipline of character which can say ""yes” “no” to other and men, not by reason of blind obstinacy, but with firmness derived from a conscious evaluation of relevant alternatives.

它需要一种能对他人说“是”“不”的人格训练,而男人,不是因为盲目的固执,而是由于对相关选择的有意识的评估而产生的坚定。

短语:with obstinacy 顽强地

one-upmanship [n.] the art or practice of maneuvering for gaining the advantage in a competitive relationship, as through status symbols or displays of superiority 想要胜人一筹的行为,取巧占上风的本事

e.g. My favorite example of one-upmanship among the plutocracy comes from 19th-century New York.

我最喜欢的胜人一筹的实例出自19世纪的纽约。

短语:gain one upmanship over 胜过一筹

ooze [v.] to flow slowly 渗出,冒出

e.g. Sometimes it seems as if a tidal wave of the worst Western culture is creeping across the globe like a giant strawberry milkshake oozing over the planet, with a flavor that is distinctly sweet, sickly and manifestly homogenous.

有时,最为不堪的西方文化像海啸一样铺天盖地,像是大量溢出的草莓奶昔,要糊住整个星球。其滋味自不必说——独有的甜腻,在哪儿也都是这个味儿,让人有点犯恶心。

oppressive [a.] making you feel unhappy and anxious 难以忍受的,沉重的

e.g. Change may mean escape from oppressive traditions.

变化有可能成为逃离沉闷传统的一个机会。

Opulence[n.]very great and splendid wealth富裕,富饶

e.g. The powerful would often stipulate the amounts of expensive raw materials from the east that artists had to use to increase the opulence and grandeur of their creations.

有权势的人通常会规定艺术家必须使用大量来自东方的昂贵原材料,以增加其创作的富裕和宏伟。

Outright [a.] complete and total 完全的

e.g. But for many peoples the triumph English is the defeat, if not outright destruction, of their own language.

但对许多人来说,英语的胜利是他们自己的语言的失败,如果不是完全毁灭的话。

overestimate [v.] to estimate sth to be larger, better, more important, etc. than it really is 高估

e.g. The thrill of a good adversarial auction cannot be overestimated.

一场出色的竞争性拍卖所带来的兴奋,无论如何也不会被高估。

短语:Overestimate oneself 自不量力

overlook [v.] to look past, to fail to notice 忽略

e.g. He does it through sheer force of personality. coupled with an unbridled passion for winning the game of business and a keen attention to details many chieftains would simply overlook.

他这样子做是通过纯粹的人格力量,再加上对赢得商业游戏的肆无忌惮的热情,以及对细节的敏锐关注,许多酋长只会忽略。

overwhelming [a.] very great or very strong; so powerful that you cannot resist it or decide how to react 在影响力量上势不可挡的,不可抗拒的

e.g. For instance, in the 19th century, Abeokuta (a town in West Africa), inspired by its Western educated former slaves, responded to the challenges of these pervasive foreign influences with a unique form of defensive modernization and reform which eventually crumbled under the weight of the overwhelming imperial British power.

譬如,十九世纪的阿贝奥库塔(西非的一个城镇),在其曾经接受了西方教育的已获自由的奴隶们的启发下,为应对外国不所不在的影响,创造了一种独一无二的防御性现代化和改革形式,而这种形式最终还是在大英帝国势不可挡的威压下崩塌。

P

Paradoxically [ad.] containing two opposite ideas that make it seem impossible or unlikely, although it is probably true 似非而是地

e.g. Television and radio, both blamed for homogenization, may, paradoxically, prolong the life of some by narrow-casting in minority tongues.

电视和电台都被归咎于同质化,矛盾的是,可能通过使用少数人的语言来延长一些人的寿命。

pedant [n.] a person who is too concerned with small details or rules especially when learning or teaching 学究,迂夫子

e.g. Pedants act on knowledge without imagination.

学究凭知识而无法想象。

Pedantic [adj.] 学究式的,书呆子气的

Pedantically [adv.] 卖弄学问地;学究式地,迂腐地

短语:be pedantic + about 对……讲究

Per-eminence[n.]the state of being more important, more successful or of a higher standard than others卓越;支配地位

e.g. Some Italian city-states laid claim to political pre-eminence through the commissioning of hugely ambitious works of art.

一些意大利城邦声称通过委托雄心勃勃的艺术品的政治卓越。

personify [v.] to have a lot of a particular quality or be a typical example of sth 是......的化身

e.g. Few have personified corporate leadership more dramatically.

很少有人能更戏剧性地将公司领导层化。

pervasive [a.] existing in all parts of a place or thing; spreading gradually to affect all parts of a place or thing 无处不在的,充斥各处的

e.g. For instance, in the 19th century, Abeokuta (a town in West Africa), inspired by its Western educated former slaves, responded to the challenges of these pervasive foreign influences with a unique form of defensive modernization and reform which eventually crumbled under the weight of the overwhelming imperial British power.

譬如,十九世纪的阿贝奥库塔(西非的一个城镇),在其曾经接受了西方教育的已获自由的奴隶们的启发下,为应对外国无所不在的影响,创造了一种独一无二的防御性现代化和改革形式,而这种形式最终还是在大英帝国势不可挡的威压下崩塌。

plutocracy [n.] a controlling class of the wealthy 富豪(或财阀)统治阶级

e.g. Do you think America's plutocracy is becoming stale?

你认为美国富豪阶层正在成为一潭死水吗?

plutocrat [n.] (often disapproving) sb who is powerful because of their wealth 财阀,富豪

e.g. Today that is not nearly enough to keep status-obsessed plutocrats from feeling inadequate.

现如今,一心显摆身份和地位的富豪们对这个尺寸早就不屑一顾。

Portray [v.] to represent or describe sb or sth in a painting, film, book, or other artistic work 塑造,表现

e.g. Instead, a Japanese actor portrays the duck with a more soothing tone.

相反,一位日本演员用一种更舒缓的语气抚摸着鸭子。

Practitioner [n.] sb involved in a skilled job or activity 开业者,专门人才

e.g. Scholars and practitioners have tried to provide managers and their employees with the tools to work together successfully.

学者和从业者一直试图为经理和员工提供成功合作的工具。

Preamble[n.] [formal] an introduction to a book or a written document; an introduction to sth you say 前言,序言

e.g. At Duke University’s Fuqua School of Business, the preamble of the honor code is displayed prominently in each classroom and students must read and sign a copy of it before they even apply to the school.

在杜克大学福库商学院,荣誉守则的序言在每个教室的显著位置展示,学生在申请学校之前必须阅读并签署一份该守则。

predecessor [n.] a thing that has been followed or replaced by sth else 原先的东西,被替代的事物

e.g. “I suppose it will be just ten times as ugly and barbaric as its predecessor,” Strong

wrote.

我想它会比它的前身粗俗丑陋10倍”斯特朗写道。

短语:antecedent predecessor 前辈

Preliminary [n.] an event or action that introduces or prepares for sth else 准备工作,初步措施

e.g. Likewise, preliminaries in Spain may take several days.

同样地,在西班牙进行的预赛也可能需要几天时间。

Priority [n.] the fact or condition of being regarded or treated as more important than others 优先,重点

e.g. A high priority is placed on getting the job done and accomplishing task-related objectives.

人们优先重视完成工作和完成与任务相关的目标。

Proficient [a.] able to do sth well because of training and practice 精通的,熟练的

e.g. Half the world will be more or less proficient in it.

世界上一半的人会或多或少地精通它。

profound [adj.] of the greatest intensity; complete 深刻的,深厚的

e.g. Welch's profound grasp on General Electric stems from knowing the company and those who work for it like no other.

韦尔奇对通用电气的深刻理解源于对公司和那些为通用电气工作的人的了解。

短语:profound condolence深切哀悼

propagate [v.] (formal) to spread opinions, lies, or beliefs among a lot of people 宣传,扩散

e.g. Information technology, as the driving force of economic globalization, has also become a veritable instrument for propagating Western culture.

作为经济全球化的驱动力,信息技术也真正成为宣扬西方文化的一大利器。

psyche [n.] the mind; your deepest feelings and attitudes 灵魂,心智

e.g. The effect of this policy in the case of Africa, as Professor Andah once noted, was untold damage to the African psyche, ""so much so that most Africans have come to believe as truth, the myths and lies about them as being primitive, history-less, mindless, cursed, lazy, inherently evil and corrupt, third world, underdeveloped.

这一政策对非洲的影响就是对非洲人心灵上的数不尽的伤害,“严重到大部分非洲人渐渐相信了那些关于他们的错误看法和谎言,还当作真理:非洲人是落后的、无历史的、无脑的、被诅咒的、懒惰的、天生邪恶腐败、属于第三世界、经济不发达.

Q

Quack [n.] the sound that a duck makes (鸭子)发出的嘎嘎声

[v.] (of a duck)to make a quack (鸭子)嘎嘎叫

e.g. The Aflac duck is going to Japan with a softer quack.

这只阿弗拉克鸭将带着更柔和的嘎嘎声去日本。

quirky [adj.] strikingly unconventional古怪的

e.g. The metaphor, however quirky for such a colossus allows Welch to mentally roll up his sleeves, slip into an apron and get behind the counter.

这个比喻,无论对于这样一个巨人来说多么古怪,都让韦尔奇在精神上卷起袖子,溜进围裙里,躲到柜台后面。

短语:quirky salt 离奇的盐

R

rally [n.] a race for cars, motorcycles, etc. over public roads 赛车,汽车拉力赛

e.g. Riva has learned from this lesson; it is linking up with the classic Mile Miglia car race to make a series of limited-edition Riva boats, the first of which will be auctioned at the rally.

丽娃从中汲取经验,与“古董老爷车一千里经典赛事”合作,推出一系列限量版“丽娃”,其中的第一艘将在活动时拍卖。

Rationalism[n.] the belief that all behavior, opinions, etc. should be based on reason rather than on emotions or religious beliefs 理性主义

e.g. Anticipated the modern world of science, technology and rationalism.

预见了科学、技术和理性主义的现代世界。

rein in to start to control sb/sth more strictly 开始严加控制

e.g. But historically those rules were often used to keep the lower classes in their place rather than to rein in the excesses of the elite.

但从历史角度而言,这些规定通常用于使下层民众安分守己,而非控制精英阶层的骄奢淫逸。

Repository [n.]a place where a large number of things can be kept or stored 仓库,存放处

e.g. They are also repositories of culture and identity.

它们也是文化和身份的宝库。

Revoke[v.] [formal]to officially cancel sth so that it is no longer valid 取消,废除

e.g. The school eventually dismissed 45 students and revoked three graduates' degrees.

该学院最终开除了45名学生,并撤销了3名毕业生的学位

S

Scandal[n.] behavior or an event that people think is morally or legally wrong and causes public feelings of shock or anger. 丑事,丑闻

e.g. The scandal comes at a time when many business schools are taking a closer look at their honor codes and implementing new measures such as student-run courts meant to discourage students from deceiving the school's faculty.

这起丑闻发生之际,许多商学院正在密切关注自己的荣誉准则,并实施新措施,如学生管理的法庭,以阻止学生欺骗学校的教师。

Scandinavian [n.] a native or inhabitant of the countries of Scandinavia, especially Norway, Sweden and Denmark 斯堪的那维亚人

e.g. Scandinavian may also be able to speak several languages.

斯堪的纳维亚人也可能会说好几种语言。

scattered [adj.] spread over a wide area or over a long period of time分散的,散布的

e.g. How does Welch, who sits atop a business empire with$304 billion in assets $89.3 billion in sales, and 276,000 employees scattered in more than 100 countries around the globe, do it?

韦尔奇位于一个商业帝国之上,拥有3040亿美元的资产,销售额为893亿美元,276,000名员工分散在全球100多个国家,他是如何做到的?

scoot [v.] to run or move very quickly and hastily 急走,疾跑

e.g. He scoots down to The Pit - the well of a bright, multitiered lecture hall - peels off his blue suit jacket, and drapes it over one of the swivel seats.

他溜到坑——一个明亮,多层的讲堂的井——剥去他的蓝色西装夹克并披在一个旋转的座位上。

短语:scoot over 快速过

scorecard [n.] a card for recording the score of a game 比赛成绩记录卡,示分牌

e.g. The thing about luxury goods is that while they may look like boats, cars, wristwatches or works of art, they are, as often as not, scorecards.

事实是,尽管奢侈品表面上看是诸如船舶、汽车、腕表或艺术品之类,他们更如同(富豪竞富的)计分卡。

Secular[a.]not connected with spiritual or religious matters 非宗教的,世俗的

e.g. A new spirit of artistic experimentation and scientific curiosity, which would ultimately give birth to modern, secular man.

一种艺术实验和科学好奇心的新精神,最终诞生了现代、世俗的人。

seductive [a.] attractive in a way that makes you want to have or do sth 诱惑的,有吸引力的

e.g. One major reason is the structural change in the world economy globalization and the flood of goods dumped in poor countries that are marketed by mass seductive advertising which is blatantly superficial but nonetheless successful in creating fresh desires in peoples of traditional societies.

主要原因之一就是世界经济的结构性变化:全球化和洪水般倾销到贫穷国家的大量商品,后者以大量诱人的广告进行推销,透出露骨的肤浅劲儿,但还是成功地在传统社会的各国人民当中催生了新的欲望。

seesaw [n.] a situation in which things keep changing from one state to another and back again 拉锯局面(原意为跷跷板)

e.g. Yet at the other end of the socioeconomic seesaw, the big issue occupying some intelligent minds this summer is whether their superyacht is big enough.

然而,在社会经济跷跷板的另一端,今夏某些睿智人士满脑子盘算的是他们名下的超级游艇是否足够大。

短语:seesaw battle 拉锯战

Seismic[a.]having a very great effect; of very great size 巨大的

e.g. As well as contact with far-flung empires, were the real causes of this seismic cultural shift.

以及与遥远帝国的接触,才是这场文化巨变的真正原因。

shoot up to rise suddenly by a large amount (数字或数量)猛增

e.g. Food and oil prices are shooting up while property values head in the opposite direction.

食品和石油价格正在飙升,而房地产价格却在走下坡路。

sickly [a.] that makes you feel sick, especially because it is too sweet or full of false emotion 令人恶心的,使人不舒服的

e.g. Sometimes it seems as if a tidal wave of the worst Western culture is creeping across the globe like a giant strawberry milkshake oozing over the planet, with a flavor that is distinctly sweet, sickly and manifestly homogenous.

有时,最为不堪的西方文化像海啸一样铺天盖地,像是大量溢出的草莓奶昔,要糊住整个星球。其滋味自不必说——独有的甜腻,在哪儿也都是这个味儿,让人有点犯恶心。

signifier [n.] a symbol, sound, or image (as a word) that represents an underlying concept or meaning 符号,标记

e.g. Up to a certain level of luxury, there is comfort in showing each other that you can keep up, using well-known signifiers (a certain brand of watch, holiday destination, motorcar, etc.).

当奢华达到一定程度,用众所周知的标志物(如某个品牌的手表、度假胜地、汽车等)来相互展示自己能够与时俱进,就会获取满足感。

silver-tongued [a.] skillful at persuading people to do or to believe what you say 有辩才的,有说服力的

e.g. According to Philippe Lamblin, the silver-tongued CEO of PrivatSea.

“私人领海”公司能言善辩的首席执行官菲利普·朗布兰表示。

Singular[a.]very great or obvious, outstanding 突出的,卓越的

e.g. This only adds to its singular importance in the history of Western cultural life.

这只是增加了它在西方文化生活史上的非凡重要性。

Snap up to buy or obtain sth quickly because it is cheap or you want it very much抢购,抢先弄到手

e.g. He snapped up porcelain, parrots, sandalwood and coconuts

他抢购瓷器、鹦鹉、檀香和椰子

solidarity [n.] support by one person or group of people for another because they share feelings, opinions, aims, etc. 团结

e.g. This creates real problems for social solidarity, whether it is at the level of nation, community or family.

不管是在民族层面、社群层面还是家庭层面,这种情况都为社会团结带来了现实问题。

Soothing [n.] making you feel calm 安抚的,使人宽心的

e.g. Instead, a Japanese actor portrays the duck with a more soothing tone.

相反,一位日本演员用一种更舒缓的语气抚摸着鸭子。

source [v.] to find out where sth can be obtained 找出……的来源,找……的资源

e.g. According to Philippe Lamblin, the silver-tongued CEO of PrivatSea, which sources large boats for people with large bank balances, the threshold for superyacht status used to be 30 meters.

“私人领海”是一家为银行存款丰富的人提供大型游艇的公司,其首席执行官雄辩的菲利普·朗布兰表示,以往超级游艇的门槛尺寸通常是30米长。

spectator [n.] a person who is watching an event, especially a sports event 观众

e.g. In publishing this list, The Sunday Times has made the acquisition of extreme wealth into a spectator sport.

《星期日泰晤士报》在发布这份榜单时,把获得极端财富变成了一项观赏性极强的运动。

spontaneous [adj.] said or done without having been planned or written in advance 自然的

e.g. because they are intimate and spontaneous Moments after Welch lifts his black felt-tip pen from the chairman's stationery, they are sent via fax direct to the employee.

因为在韦尔奇从主席的文具上抬起黑色毡尖笔后,他们是亲密和自发的,所以他们通过传真直接发送给员工。

短语:spontaneous emission 自发辐射

sprout [v.] (of plants or seeds) to produce new leaves or buds; to start to grow 抽芽,抽条,生长

e.g. You know it is springtime in London not by the arrival of swallows or the sprouting of blossoms, but by the printing of the annual Sunday Times Rich List.

在伦敦,提醒人们春天来临的并非燕子归来或花儿含苞待放,而是一年一度的《周日泰晤士报富豪榜》的刊出。

短语:sprout up 涌现

squeeze [v.] to obtain sth from sb with difficulty 勉强赢得,努力, 获得

e.g. Many CEOs wrestle to squeeze just average performance from companies a fraction of GE's size.

许多首席执行官努力从通用电气规模很小的公司中榨取平均绩效。

短语:squeeze out 将……排除

Stipulate[v.]to state clearly and firmly that sth must be done, or how to must be done; to specify规定

e.g. The powerful would often stipulate the amounts of expensive raw materials from the east that artists had to use to increase the opulence and grandeur of their creations.

有权势的人通常会规定艺术家必须使用大量来自东方的昂贵原材料,以增加其创作的富裕和宏伟。

stutter [n.] a speech disorder involving hesitations and involuntary repetitions of certain sounds 口吃

e.g. His slight stutter,a handicap that has bedeviled him since childhood, makes him oddly vulnerable.

他轻微的口吃,一个从小困扰他的障碍,使他奇怪的脆弱。

Subordinate [n.] a person who has a less important position than you in an organization 部下,下级

e.g. Subordinates may all come from cultures that differ from their own.

下级可能都来自与他们自己不同的文化。

Subsidiary [n.] a company that is owned by a large company 附属机构,子公司

e.g. I work for a company that has a subsidiary in Korea.

我在一家在韩国有子公司的公司工作。

sumptuary law a law designed to limit private expenditure on food and personal items 限制奢侈法令

e.g. Such over-the-top competition can be traced back to ancient Rome, which invoked sumptuary laws to tame the excess.

这种顶级竞争可追溯到古罗马时期,当时不得不通过“限奢令”让奢侈无度有所收敛。

swivel seat a chair that turns on a pivot 旋转座椅

e.g. He scoots down to The Pit - the well of a bright, multitiered lecture hall - peels off his blue suit jacket, and drapes it over one of the swivel seats.

他溜到坑——一个明亮,多层的讲堂的井——剥去他的蓝色西装夹克并披在一个旋转的座位上。

symbolism [n.] the practice of investing things with symbolic meaning 象征手法,象征性

e.g. Welch is uncommonly conscious of the signals and symbolism of leadership.

韦尔奇对领导力的信号和象征意义的意识是罕见的。

短语:symbolism painting 象征主义绘画的

T

Tactfulness [n.] consideration in dealing with others and avoiding giving offence 圆通,得体

e.g. It can demonstrate respect, tactfulness, and modesty in their behaviors.

它可以表现出他们行为的挑剔、机智和谦虚。

tame [v.] to bring under control 控制

e.g. Such over-the-top competition can be traced back to ancient Rome, which invoked sumptuary laws to tame the excess.

这种顶级竞争可追溯到古罗马时期,当时不得不通过“限奢令”让奢侈无度有所收敛。

temperate [adj.] (of a climate or region) having a mild temperature without extremes of heat or cold 温带的

e.g. It requires an imaginative grasp of conditions in the tropics, and of conditions in temperate zones.

它需要对热带和温带的情况有想象力的把握

短语:temperate zone 温带"

toga [n.] a loose outer piece of clothing worn by the citizens of ancient Rome(古代罗马市民穿的宽松)托加袍

e.g. Over time, such laws have restricted everything from the way togas were made to which fish could be eaten.

随着时间的推移,这种法令变得无所不限,既限制市民穿的宽松的托加袍如何裁剪,又限制人们可以吃哪种鱼。

trace back to to find the origin or cause of sth 追溯到

e.g. Such over-the-top competition can be traced back to ancient Rome, which invoked sumptuary laws to tame the excess.

这种顶级竞争可追溯到古罗马时期,当时不得不通过“限奢令”让奢侈无度有所收敛。

tumble [v.] to suffer a sudden downfall, overthrow, or defeat 摔倒突然倒塌,垮掉

e.g. For 17 years, while big companies and their chieftains tumbled like dominoes in an unforgiving global economy, Welch has led GE to one revenue and earnings record after another.

17年来,尽管在无情的全球经济中,大公司及其首席执行官像多米诺骨牌一样暴跌,但韦尔奇却带领通用电气创下了一个又一个收入和盈利记录。

短语:tumble over 乱扔,打翻,绊倒,反复思考

U

Umpteen [a.]very many 无数的

e.g. English is now so widely spoken in so many places that umpteen versions have evolved.

英语现在许多地方被广泛使用,因而产生了无数种不同的版本。

unbridled [adj.] not restrained or controlled奔放的,无拘无束的

e.g. He does it through sheer force of personality. coupled with an unbridled passion for winning the game of business and a keen attention to details many chieftains would simply overlook.

他这样子做是通过纯粹的人格力量,再加上对赢得商业游戏的肆无忌惮的热情,以及对细节的敏锐关注,许多酋长只会忽略。

underlie [v.] to be the basis or cause of sth 成为……的基础

e.g. The way in which a university should function in the preparation for an intellectual career, such as modern business or one of the older professions, is by promoting the imaginative consideration of the various general principles underlying that career.

大学在准备知识职业(如现代商业或较旧的职业)时应发挥作用的方式对促进该职业所依据的各种一般原则的富有想象力的考虑。

undermine [v.] to make sth, especially sb’s confidence or authority, gradually weaker or less effective 逐渐损坏,破坏

e.g. However, there is genuine cause for concern about the rate at which cultures (African and non-African) are being undermined in a world that is bound together by ever-stronger economic ties.

然而,在世界被经济关系日益紧密地联结在一起的局势下,关注不同文化(非洲及非洲以外)被侵蚀削弱的速度自有其真正的原因。

Unto [prep.]to or towards sb/sth 对,向

e.g. But languages are not only a medium of communication, which enable nation to speak unto nation.

但语言不仅是一种交流的媒介,使国家能够对国家说话。

V

veritable [a.] a word used to emphasize that sb/sth can be compared to sb/sth else that is more exciting, more impressive, etc. 十足的,不折不扣的

e.g. Information technology, as the driving force of economic globalization, has also become a veritable instrument for propagating Western culture.

作为经济全球化的驱动力,信息技术也真正成为宣扬西方文化的一大利器。

W

Wary [a.] not completely trusting or certain about sth or sb 谨慎的,警惕的

e.g. I am rather wary about this and feel that this manager has put me in an awkward position.

我对此相当谨慎,觉得这个经理让我处于一个尴尬的境地。

wealthscape [n.] the scene or picture of wealth 财富图

e.g. This is a sort of league table for the super-rich, a survey of the British wealthscape that decrees who comes out on top.

这是份超级富豪的排行榜,调查英国(超级富豪的)财富状况,用以裁定谁能荣登榜首。

weld [n.] a joint that is made by welding two pieces of mental together 焊接点处

[v.] to unite people or things into a strong and effective group 使紧密结合,使成整体

e.g. The task of a university is to weld together imagination and experience.

大学的任务是把想象力和经验结合起来。

welder [n.] someone whose job is to weld metal in a factory 焊工

whisk [v.] [with object and adverbial of direction] to take or more (sb/sth) somewhere suddenly and quickly 飞快带走,急忙运送

e.g. Whisked by chopper from New York City, Jack Welch arrives early at the (GE) training center at Croton-on-Hudson.

杰克·韦尔奇在从纽约市乘直升机,早早地到达了位于哈德森州克罗顿的(GE)培训中心。

wield [v.] to have and use power, authority, etc.行使,施加

e.g. Less well understood, however, is how Jack Welch is able to wield so much influence and power over the most far-flung complex organization in all of American business.

然而,不太清楚的是,杰克·韦尔奇是如何能够对全美企业中最遥远的复杂组织施加如此大的影响力和权力的。

短语:wield a good baton指挥灵活

wrestle [v.] to combat to overcome an opposing tendency or force 与......搏斗,斗争

e.g. Many CEOs wrestle to squeeze just average performance from companies a fraction of GE's size.

许多首席执行官努力从通用电气规模很小的公司中榨取平均绩效。

短语:wrestle down 把……摔倒

Wrestle out 拼命干,奋力完成

Z

zest [n.] enjoyment and enthusiasm 热心,热情

e.g. The justification for a university is that it preserves the connection between knowledge and the zest of life, by uniting the young and the old in the imaginative consideration of learning

大学存在的理由是,它通过把年轻人和老年人在对学习的富有想象力的思考中结合起来,保持了知识和生活情趣之间的联系。

短语:zest for 对……热情


 
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